The passion cross was made in the 18th century. The depiction of the Crucifixion with Mary and St. John was taken from the Gospel of St. John (Jn 19: 26-27). It illustrates the scene that took place during the martyrdom of Christ on the cross. The passion cross was probably intended for private devotion and contemplation of the Passion of Christ.
Paulina Kluz, "Passion Cross", [in:] "The Sacred Lesser Poland Heritage", 2021, source: https://sdm.upjp2.edu.pl/en/works/passion-cross